Hemoglobin is a kind of protein that is contained in the blood that is characterized by its red color. The function of hemoglobin is to transport the oxygen that is generated in the respiratory organs to the tissues of the whole body, and consequently to carry the carbon dioxide generated by the tissues to the lungs for their elimination, they are also key agents to regulate the pH of the blood.
Oxyhemoglobin or oxygenated hemoglobin is the term given to hemoglobin when it binds to oxygen. This is evidenced when arterial blood becomes scarlet red, but when it loses oxygen it is called reduced hemoglobin and is characterized by blood takes on a dark color, this condition is clinically known as cyanosis.
Hemoglobin is known by the names of red blood cells, because of their red color, erythrocytes or red blood cells and have their origin in the bone marrow of some long bones. When a decrease in the normal number of hemoglobin in a person is diagnosed with anemia. In addition to providing oxygen to the capillaries and the transport of carbon dioxide from the lungs to the lungs, hemoglobin has an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase, which causes the water to react with CO2 and thus produce bicarbonate, which is an important anion in the acid-base balance. With respect to oxygen in combination with hemoglobin it can be emphasized that only a small amount of the oxygen dissolves in the blood plasma, most of it is transported by arterial blood and makes it bound to hemoglobin.
The amount of hemoglobin in a liter of blood taken from a normal adult is approximately 150 grams, where each gram of hemoglobin is combined with 1.34 ml of oxygen, which means that one liter of healthy adult blood contains approximately 200 ml of O2.
Among the types of hemoglobins are:
Hemoglobin A or HbA: usually can be known as adult hemoglobin, is formed by two globins alphas and two beta globins. It represents approximately 97% of hemoglobin in a healthy adult.
Hemoglobin A2: This type of hemoglobin is formed by two globine alphas and two globine delta. It represents 2.5% of the total hemoglobin in the blood after birth.
Hemoglobin S: Hemoglobin S is a type of hemoglobin that occurs in sickle cell anemia, and mainly affects the African American and Amerindian population.
Hemoglobin F: also known as fetal hemoglobin, is a type of hemoglobin present during fetal formation, is composed of two alpha globins and two gamma globins. This type of hemoglobin decreases progressively after birth, as it decreases the production of gamma globin and increases the synthesis of beta globins, becoming hemoglobins type A.
Oxyhemoglobin: are the result of the union of hemoglobin with oxygen. Methemoglobin: is a hemoglobin that is produced by a congenital disease or by intoxication of nitrites, in which there is iron deficiency. It is characterized by not being able to join the oxygen. Carbaminohemoglobin: is the hemoglobin that forms when it binds with CO2 the moment they pass through the tissues and collect their waste CO2 to transport them to the lungs. Carboxyhemoglobin: is a type of hemoglobin that results from the union with CO. When its concentration in the total of the blood exceeds 40% this can be deadly for the patient. CO binds more rapidly to hemoglobin than oxygen (O), so it can cause tissue hypoxia, this is a condition where blood becomes strong red. Hemoglobin Glucoside: results from the binding of hemoglobin to glucose or other free carbohydrates. In normal conditions this type of hemoglobin is in the blood in low concentration, but in diabetic people is increased.
Analysis with low hemoglobin:
If hemoglobin levels are relatively lower than normal values, it is generally not considered important, the insurance patient will not show any symptoms. In areas where altitude is at sea level, it is very common to find people with relatively lower hemoglobin levels than normal.
When these levels exceed the low values of hemoglobin may be due to: Anemia in its various types. Bleeding from the digestive tract, menstrual periods plentiful. Disorders of the bone marrow which does not produce enough red blood cells. Diseases such as leukemia, some types of cancer, radiotherapy, toxicity by some drugs, infections, etc. Bad nutrition Insufficient levels of iron, folate, vitamin B12, or folic acid. Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Analysis with high hemoglobin:
High hemoglobin counts are always due to insufficient levels of oxygen, a mechanism by which the organism compensates lack of oxygenation, this condition is called hypoxia. It is very common to find high levels of hemoglobin in people living in areas where altitude is high, in chronic smokers, in people with moderate to severe dehydration. Other reasons to have high hemoglobin could be:
Congenital heart disease. Insufficiency on the right side of the heart. Some lung disorders such as pulmonary fibrosis. Bone marrow disorders such as polycythemia vera.