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The levels of glucose concentration in the blood reflect the amount of glucose that a person has in the blood. This is the main source of energy for the cells of our organism that circulates through the whole body through the bloodstream.

Glucose comes from the food we eat, and it is used as a source of energy or stored in the body. When a person has high blood glucose levels he is said to suffer from a medical condition called hyperglycemia. The level of sugar rises in the blood when the body is not able to produce insulin, which causes type 1 diabetes, or can not respond correctly to insulin, resulting in type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a substance that allows the glucose contained in the blood to enter the cells of the body and be used as an energy source. In people where insulin is not working properly, glucose is concentrated in the blood causing hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can damage blood vessels that provide energy to vital organs, which can bring many health risks to individuals with this condition such as heart disease, stroke, liver disease, vision problems or nervous problems associated with people with diabetes. These problems usually occur in adults with diabetes who have not been adequately controlled.

There are many ways to measure blood glucose concentration, the most common in laboratories are fasting blood glucose analyzes and random blood glucose analyzes. If the test to be performed is a fasting blood glucose test, normal values ​​between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) are considered normal. If on the contrary the test is a random blood glucose test, the result will depend on the time elapsed since the last time the patient ate, values ​​considered normal for this type of test were less than 125 mg / dL. It should be noted that the values ​​mentioned above may vary slightly from laboratory to laboratory, so it is recommended to perform blood tests in a laboratory that has a good reputation in its results.

High glucose analysis:

If the blood test performed was fasting blood glucose: If the test results in levels between 100 and 125 mg / dL, there is an impaired fasting glucose, and the patient is prone to type 2 diabetes if adequate precautions are not taken. A fasting glucose level of 126 mg / dL or greater usually means that the patient has diabetes. If the glucose analysis performed was that of random blood glucose: If the level reflected in the analysis focuses on a level equal to or greater than 200 mg / dL it means that the patient suffers from diabetes. Generally the specialist will order other tests such as fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test or a glucose tolerance test to corroborate the diagnosis. If the patient already suffers from diabetes, an abnormal result of this test reflects that the disease is not well controlled.

Some diseases can also cause increased levels of glucose in the body, such as:

Pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatitis Severe stress.
Some types of tumors such as pheochromocytoma, acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome or glucagonoma, among others.

Low glucose analysis:
When the patient has glucose levels below the normal levels is said to suffer from a medical condition called hypoglycemia and may be due to:

Hypopituitarism, is a disease that reflects a pituitary disorder.
Adrenal glands or hypoactive thyroid glands.
A very rare tumor called insulinoma.
Eat very little.
Too much insulin or too many other diabetes medications.
Weight loss abruptly.
Vigorous exercises.